The laboratory analysis of your samples and interpretation of the results is a painstaking, time consuming task. The standard in-laboratory time is 7–9 working days. We understand that you may be anxious to know the results, but telephoning us will not speed up the process!

Please allow for postage times, weekends and bank holidays on top. We also offer express processing.

DNA tests can only rule people out. When a child’s DNA does not match that of the alleged parent, this proves with 100% certainty that they could not possibly be related. We say they are excluded.

When the DNA does match the child’s, there is still a possibility (albeit statistically remote) that someone else is the biological parent. However, in everyday terms, assuming that no related man is a possible father, a matching result is conclusive. See Test Limitation Information for further details.

A sample is taken from inside the mouth of the child and both parents. Contrary to popular belief, what is required is not saliva, but actual microscopic skin cells from the cheek which rub off easily and painlessly using a specially designed ‘buccal swab’ (cotton bud).

No. A person’s blood cells and skin cells contain exactly the same DNA so there would be no benefit in using a blood sample. A quick and painless mouth swab is all that is required.

No. Having human tissue with the intention of its DNA being analysed, without the consent of the person from whom the tissue came, is unlawful under the Human Tissue Act.

Unfortunately, no. A complete new test must be done.

Absolutely not! We are a private clinic, and are not linked to the NHS or any government agency. We respect your privacy.

In order to calculate the probability of a relationship, it is important that we know the probability of genetic markers matching just by chance.

Different ethnic groups have different random match probabilities.

Sibling and Grandparentage analysis is never as conclusive as parentage analysis. A typical result might be 0 – 5% probability of a relationship (strong evidence that a relationship does not exist) or 85 – 99% (strong evidence that it does). However, there is a possibility with Sibling and Grandparentage tests that a result in the 30 – 70% range is obtained – which is inconclusive.

In rare cases where the outcome does not produce strong evidence one way or another, you can opt for an extended study in which the DNA from the original mouth swabs is subjected to additional analysis. There is a further fee payable.

Yes. If a woman has sex with different men at short intervals within the same ovulatory period, so-called ‘heteropaternal superfecundation’ could occur.

It is important that both parents’ DNA is sampled to determine which genes in the child were inherited from the mother. The remaining genes must have been passed down by the child’s biological father (paternal genes). The tests can then focus on just these genes.

It is still possible to conduct the test without the mother’s DNA, but we do normally require her written consent in any case. A motherless paternity test reduces the accuracy of the test and in very rare cases, produces inconclusive results.

Our fees are per case and are fully transparent with no hidden extras. They include written results for each participant over 16 years of age, either:

  • given to you at a half hour Results Session back at the clinic with your case manager


  • delivered to you by post or email. If you choose Express processing, then the laboratory can telephone you with the results.

Counselling can be helpful and supportive in dealing with feelings which may arise before and after the test is carried out. We are all trained and experienced counsellors and are happy to discuss your options at any time. See our counselling website

Counselling is not included in our DNA testing fees.

DNA testing is a personal matter. We respect your privacy and we take steps to protect your personal information. For this reason, if you telephone us regarding your case, you will be asked for certain personal information to identify you. We will not discuss any aspect of your case with a third party (including your relatives) unless you have nominated them in writing at the time of your consultation.

We will be happy to answer any further questions you may have.

Please contact us on 0161 610 0927 without obligation. If we are busy with other clients, leave your name and telephone number and we will return your call. Or drop us a line here.